Oxford Divine Talk Religious Argumentation In Demosthenes by Gunther Martin

By Gunther Martin

Gunther Martin examines the references to faith within the speeches of Demosthenes and different Athenian orators within the 4th century BC. partially I he demonstrates the position faith performs within the rhetorical technique of speeches in political trials: his major argument is that audio system needed to be constant of their method of faith all through their occupation. It used to be impossible to alter from being a practical to a `religious' speaker and again, however it used to be attainable, while writing for others, to exploit faith in a manner one don't have used it while supplying a speech oneself. partly II Martin offers with meeting speeches and speeches in deepest trials, within which non secular references are some distance scarcer. within the meeting, except surely spiritual concerns are mentioned, faith turns out to were virtually inadmissible, whereas in deepest trials it really is procedural parts that provide the vast majority of non secular references.

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Even the scholiast (Schol. Dem. 21. 511) has to admit that he does not know the exact meaning of these words. Against Midias (Or. 21) 33 in this context; it only makes the oVence more serious, but does not change the nature of the conXict with his fellow citizens. Even where Demosthenes accuses Midias straightforwardly of IóÝâåØÆ, the religious aspect is subordinate (§§199 200): ôßò ªÜæ KóôØí ‹óôØò ŒÆôÆååØæïôïíÅŁbí ÆPôïF, ŒÆd ôÆFôš IóåâåEí ðåæd ôcí ›ïæôÞí, åN ŒÆd ìÅäådò ¼ººïò KðBí Iªgí ŠôØ ìÅäb Œßíäıíïò, ïPŒ ií Kðš ÆPôfiH ôïýôfiø ŒÆôÝäı ŒÆd ìÝôæØïí ðÆæÝóååí ›Æıôeí ôüí ªå äc ìÝåæØ ôBò Œæßóåøò åæüíïí, åN ŒÆd ìc ðÜíôÆ; ïPäådò ‹óôØò ïPŒ ¼í: Iººš ïP ÌåØäßÆò, Iººš Iðe ôBò ™ìÝæÆò ôÆýôÅò ºÝªåØ, ºïØäïæåEôÆØ, âïfi A.

62 Cf. Fisher (1992), 145 on the events of 415. There (as in his other examples of oâæØò against a god), oâæØò constitutes not just an aVront against deities and beliefs, but also against ‘the solidarity and cohesion of the society’. åPóÝâåØÆ can even be deWned as sticking to the rules of the ðüºØò, cf. Xen. Mem. 1. 3. 1, Hell. 1. 7. 25, Isoc. 7. 30. 36 Speeches in Public Trials We have seen three functions or ways in which the religious elements in the speech work: the Wrst one, which is not expressly mentioned (hinted at only at the very end), but which may nevertheless be eVective for part of the audience is the demand to retaliate by punishing Midias on behalf of Dionysus.

It is noticeable that the relation of crown and sacredness became weaker, all the same: many sources show that the crown has become nearly a symbol of excessive drinking (Ar. Ach. 1145, Eq. 534, Eccl. 131 3 of alcoholics identiWable by the crown). Plato criticizes the young and their revelries mentioning the crowns they wear (Rep. 560 e, 573 a). Athenaeus also complains about the diVerence between cultic origin and contemporary profane customs (5. 192 b). But this complaint is an indication that symposia could still be associated with purity in his time.

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