By Marsilius of Padua, Annabel Brett
Annabel Brett's authoritative rendition of the Defensor Pacis is the 1st new translation in English for 50 years of this vintage of western political proposal, and encompasses a chronology, notes for additional interpreting, and updated annotation geared toward the scholar reader encountering this significant textual content for the 1st time.
Cover; Half-title; Series-title; name; Copyright; Contents; Acknowledgements; advent; feedback for additional examining; imperative occasions in Marsilius's lifestyles; Notes at the translation; Notes at the references; The Defender of the Peace: Contents; Discourse I; Discourse Ii; Discourse Iii; Index.
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Again, to whom it belongs to constrain in this world any transgressor of things that have been established or defined in a general council. Further, that no bishop or priest can excommunicate any priest or put any people under interdict, nor confer temporal ecclesiastical benefices or tithes or licences to teach upon anyone, nor any civil offices, except in accordance with a decision or concession of a general council or the human legislator or both In what way the Roman bishop and his church may be head and principal of the rest; and on account of what authority this belongs to them On the modes of plenitude of power, and in what way and what order the Roman bishop has assumed them for himself; and a summary of how he has used and continues to use them How, specifically, the Roman bishop has used the primacy and plenitude of power that he has assumed within the limits of the church or the domestic economy of the priesthood How, specifically, the Roman bishop has used the said powers beyond the boundaries of the church, in respect of lay persons or civil affairs How he uses the same more specifically towards the Roman prince and empire On some objections to what was determined in chapter 15 of this discourse and in other chapters subsequently On the replies to the said objections lx 360 367 376 391 408 418 432 449 473 483 Contents 29 30 On the solution to the objections adduced from Scripture in chapter 3 of this discourse, to show that bishops have coercive jurisdiction and that the Roman bishop, as such, has supreme coercive jurisdiction On the solution to the objections introduced in the same chapter 3 to the same end, and concerning the transference of the Roman empire or any other principate, sc.
14 Cicero, De officiis (On Duties), I. 22. Marcus Tullius Cicero (106–43 BCE), orator, philosopher and politician, was one of the most influential writers of antiquity, and his work On Duties was widely read in the middle ages (as in other periods) as a source of moral and political wisdom. I have adapted the translation from Cicero: On Duties, ed. and tr. M. T. Griffin and E. M. Atkins (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 9–10; all subsequent references to the work are from this volume.
The worldly, and those things that are necessary for it, the glorious philosophers grasped almost the entire matter by demonstration. From this they concluded the necessity, for securing it, of the civil community, without which this sufficient living cannot be obtained. 3 And although the experience of the senses teaches this, we nonetheless wish to introduce the cause we spoke of with greater definition, and say that because man is by nature composed of contrary elements, and as a result of their contrary actions and passions is almost continually losing something of his substance; and again, because he is born naked and undefended against the excesses of the air which surrounds him, and of the other elements4 – passible and corruptible, as they say in natural 2 Cicero, On Duties I.