By Daniel Sui, Sarah Elwood, Michael Goodchild
The phenomenon of volunteered geographic info is a part of a profound transformation in how geographic info, info, and information are produced and circulated. by way of situating volunteered geographic info (VGI) within the context of big-data deluge and the data-intensive inquiry, the 20 chapters during this publication discover either the theories and functions of crowdsourcing for geographic wisdom creation with 3 sections concentrating on 1).VGI, Public Participation, and Citizen technology; 2). Geographic wisdom construction and position Inference; and 3). rising functions and New demanding situations. This publication argues that destiny development in VGI examine relies largely on construction powerful linkages with assorted geographic scholarship. individuals of this quantity situate VGI examine in geography’s center matters with area and position, and supply a number of methods of addressing continual demanding situations of caliber coverage in VGI. This booklet positions VGI as a part of a shift towards hybrid epistemologies, and in all probability a fourth paradigm of data-intensive inquiry around the sciences. It additionally considers the results of VGI and the exaflood for extra time-space compression and new varieties, levels of electronic inequality, the renewed significance of geography, and the position of crowdsourcing for geographic wisdom production.
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Additional info for Crowdsourcing Geographic Knowledge: Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) in Theory and Practice
This agrees with widely accepted principles of volunteering. Opt-out provisions may be clear but often are totalizing in scope; their acceptance involves the loss of control and influence over the collection and uses of information. This difference speaks to the practical importance of distinguishing crowdsourced information collected by people actively deciding to collect data, and having some measure of control, from crowdsourced data collected automatically or with a clear abrogation of possibilities to influence the collection and also reuse of the data.
The ease of data reuse necessitates extending this pragmatic understanding to include recognition of possible future reuses. Opting-in agreements clarify to collectors of crowdsourced information the specifics of how the data they agree to provide is collected and indicates the possibilities for reuse. This agrees with widely accepted principles of volunteering. Opt-out provisions may be clear but often are totalizing in scope; their acceptance involves the loss of control and influence over the collection and uses of information.
38) define the value chain as ‘the set of value-adding activities an organization performs in creating and distributing goods and services, including direct activities such as production and sales, and indirect activities such as managing human resources and providing finance’. Value is created step by step along the chain; thus, pricing in a value chain serves to determine the way in which the value created for the end user is distributed among the contributors (Genovese et al. 2010). The sum of all such margins, at the end of the chain, equals the total value added (Krek and Frank 2000) .