Combustion Calorimetry. Experimental Chemical Thermodynamics by Stig Sunner

By Stig Sunner

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Example text

T h e m a i n p e r i o d s t a r t s - a t t by i n i t i a t i o n of t h e r e a c t i o n . T h e end of t h e r e a c t i o n p e r i o d at t must be d e t e r m i n e d e m p i r i c a l l y , the c r i t e r i o n b e i n g that T + AT b e c o m e c o n s t a n t for t > t . e ex e As a r u l e t h e l e n g t h of the t y p e s of c o m p o u n d a r e b u r n t are r o u g h l y the s a m e . Integration of e29 gives main period varies and the a m o u n t s of little energy if t h e s a m e developed 29 BASIC T = T^ - 2-17 PRINCIPLES (T^- T Q) e x p ( - k t ) e31 This equation d e s c r i b e s how the t e m p e r a t u r e of the c a l o r i m e t e r proper a p p r o a c h e s that of the t h e r m o s t a t , e v e r y t h i n g left u n d i s t u r b e d .

W i t h a r e s o l u t i o n o f 1, 0 . 1 , a n d 0 . 0 1 m K , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i n a l l y , t h e c o n v e n i e n c e o f not h a v i n g to t u r n k n o b s , read d i a l s , a n d w r i t e n u m b e r s , is rather obvious. The p r o p e r f u n c t i o n i n g of a t h e r m o s t a t (or o f a s h i e l d control in a d i a b a t i c c a l o r i m e t r y ) i s o f p r i m a r y i m p o r t a n c e i n a c c u r a t e c a l o r i m e t r i c w o r k . E f f i c i e n t e l e c t r o n i c d e v i c e s a r e a v a i l a b l e on the m a r k e t , c a p a b l e of k e e p i n g the t e m p e r a t u r e of a bath c o n s t a n t to w i t h i n 1 m K .

9 8 4 2 n W m " To find a v a l u e of c', w e a s s u m e t h a t we p e r f o r m an e x p e r i m e n t f r o m 22 9 6 1t o 2 9 8 K c h o o s i n g T ( s ) = 2 9 8 K . W i t h c ' = 0 . 3 1 2 7 2 5 W m"" K " , P ^ is e q u a l t o P r at t w o t e m p e r a t u r e s , 2 9 6 a n d 2 9 8 K. 5 p e r c e n t . I n a n e x p e r i m e n t b e t w e e n 2 9 6 . 3 per cent. Realizing that P is a p p r o x i m a t e l y 11 p e r c e n t o f t h e t o t a l h e a t e x c h a n g e , w h i c h in o u r e x a m p l e a m o u n t s to c a .

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