By John Shore
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Extra info for Colorants and Auxiliaries: Organic Chemistry and Application Properties: Colorants v. 1
Reactive phthalocyanine dyes in the 1960s superseded these early approaches to the attainment of fast bright blues and turquoises on cellulosic fabrics . 17 Fluorescent brightening agents These essentially colourless compounds have been defined as substances ‘that, when added to an uncoloured or a coloured substrate, increase the reflectance of the substrate in the visible region by converting UV radiation into visible light and so increase the whiteness or brightness of the substrate’. pmd 32 15/11/02, 14:41 COLORANTS AND THE ENVIRONMENT 33 reflects the general indecision among practitioners in this field about whether to call them ‘fluorescent brightening agents’ (or FBAs), as in the Colour Index, ‘fluorescent whiteners’ (FWs) or ‘optical whiteners’ (OWs).
Concentrated anionic monoazo dyes (mainly yellows, oranges and especially reds) can be precipitated as their insoluble metal salts, typically those of barium, aluminium or calcium. These processes of converting soluble dyes into pigments by precipitation, often in the presence of an inert substrate such as the so-called alumina hydrate, are now of declining importance. The inorganic group of pigments represents the naturally occurring coloured minerals that have been widely used throughout recorded history to colour ceramics, glass and many other artefacts.
Although no longer significant in textile dyeing or printing, coloration techniques of a similar kind have remained the primary method of colouring human hair, feathers and natural furs. 16 Ingrain dyes This is another somewhat ambiguous category in the context of the Colour Index classification, but fortunately it is now merely of historical interest. An ‘ingrain’ dyeing process is defined as the formation of a colorant ‘in situ in the substrate by the development and coupling of one or more intermediate compounds’.