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Additional resources for Coal Combustion and Gasification (The Plenum Chemical Engineering Series)
However, this has only been recently demonstrated at the laboratory scale (2). In 1986 Viikari and co-workers (3) showed that xylanases can be used as a prebleaching step in conventional bleaching sequences. Xylanase treatment is effective on both softwood and hardwood kraft pulps (4, 5) and has been implemented in several kraft mills in North America and Europe (5-8). 5 million tonnes/year and representing 8% of the Canadian kraft pulp production (9). Xylanase pretreatment has a strong boosting effect on pulps being bleached with elemental chlorine and permits substantial reductions in both the chlorine charge required and the subsequent amounts of organochlorine generated (4, 5).
Vuorinen, T. Carbohydr. Res. 1995, 272, pp 55-71. 4. ; Vuorinen, L. Tappi J. 1995, 78, pp 125-130. 5. ; Vuorinen, T. Carbohydr. Res. 1996, 280, pp 197-208. 6. ; Janson, J. Holzforschung 1995, 49, pp 439-444. 7. ; Viikari, L. Proc. 8th Int. Symp. Wood and Pulping Chemistry, Helsinki, 6-9 June 1995. III,pp 189-194. 8. ; Stenius, P. Holzforschung, 1996, 50, pp 208-214. 9. ; Ström, G. Holzforschung, 1996, 50, pp 69-74. 10. Pulp Paper Sci. 1996, 22, pp J43-J47. 11. ; Viikari, L. Holzforschung, 1994, 48, pp 441-446.
Mill applications of xylanase have been widely reported (5-JO). Mill Survey. Given the increasing usage of xylanase for enhancing bleaching, a survey of mills regarding their xylanase usage was originated as a project by the Bleaching Committee of the Canadian Pulp and Paper Association. The objectives of the survey were to determine: 1. The major areas of effort of bleaching plants in Canada; 2. The extent to which mills are trialing and using the prominent additives that enhance bleaching: hydrogen peroxide (a common bleaching chemical), anthraquinone (a pulping additive that can decrease the Kappa number and hence bleaching chemical usage), and xylanase; 3.