By M. Graf, D. Barrettino, H.P. Baltes, A. Hierlemann
The 1st entire textual content on microhotplate-based chemical sensor structures in CMOS-technology covers all points of profitable sensor prototyping: theoretical issues for modelling, controller- and procedure layout, simulation of circuits and microsensors, layout issues, microfabrication, packaging and trying out. an entire relatives of metal-oxide established microsensor structures with expanding complexity is gifted, together with absolutely built-in sensor arrays. This represents one of many first examples of built-in nanomaterials, microtechnology and embedded circuitry.
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Additional resources for CMOS Hotplate Chemical Microsensors (Microtechnology and MEMS)
37), self-heating occurs with a resistive heater, so that the thermal time constant has to be determined during the cooling cycle. 4 Calibration of the Temperature Sensors The discrete microhotplates were packaged and bonded in a DIL-28 package for temperature sensor calibration. A Pt-100-temperature sensor was attached to the chip package in close vicinity to the sensors. The chips were then calibrated in an oven at temperatures up to C with the help of the Pt-100 resistor. 1 Circular Microhotplate 37 The calibration was done for temperatures between C and C.
The input parameters for a lumped-model description (Sect. 4) of the microhotplate are calculated from the simulation results. An AHDL (Analog Hardware Description Language) model, which then will be used for a circuitry simulation of the complete sensor system, is derived from the lumpedmodel equations in Sect. 5. 1) where j(x,t) denotes the heat ﬂux, and κ(x,T(x,t)) is the heat conductivity that locally depends on the temperature. T(x,t) denotes the temperature ﬁeld as a function of the 3-dimensional coordinate x.
3 Microhotplate with Pt Temperature Sensor CMOS metallization Pt-temperature sensor thick-film SnO2 resistor local passivation bondpad 45 CMOS passivation n-well Si-island poly-Si ring heater Pt-metallization Pt-electrodes poly-Si temperature sensor Fig. 11. Cross-sectional schematic of the high-temperature microhotplate on the bulk chip and no more in the heated membrane center. The Pt-elements have to be protected by a passivation layer, and the passivation has to be opened again to contact the sensitive layer to enable resistive measurements.