By R. H. Farmer and Jack Kape (Auth.)
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Additional resources for Chemistry in the Utilization of Wood
BROWNING (editor), The Chemistry of Wood, Interscience, New York, 1963, chaps. 4, 5, 6 and 7. L. E. WISE and E. C. JAHN (editors), Wood Chemistry, Reinhold, New York, 1952, vol. 1, chaps. 5, 6, 10, 11 and 12-17. E. G. V. , revised by E. Percival. J. Garnet Miller, London, 1963. R. J. MCILROY, Chemistry of the Polysaccharides, Edward Arnold, London, 1948. 31 CHEMISTRY IN THE UTILIZATION OF WOOD F. E. BRAUNS, The Chemistry of Lignin, Academic Press, New York, 1952; also F. E. BRAUNS and D. A. BRAUNS, Supplement Volume, Academic Press, New York and London, 1960.
This reaction is also the basis of undesirable colour changes which occasionally occur on oakveneered plywood or panelling. If veneers of oak, or other tannin-containing wood, are laid using an animal (protein) glue and are subsequently exposed to damp conditions, for example in panelling fixed to a damp wall, decomposition of the glue due to bacterial action may occur, with production of small amounts of ammonia from the protein in the glue. This interacts with the tannin in the oak veneer, producing unsightly grey-brown patches on the surface.
The lignin content of the residue is then determined separately and a correction applied for the lignin remaining in it. Two methods are in common use for determining holocellulose. In the first, delignification is carried out by repeated treatment of the extractive-free wood with chlorine, followed by alcoholic ethanolamine (NH 2 CH 2 CH 2 OH), until the residue is white, and in the second, the delignifying agent is hot (70-80°C) sodium chlorite solution acidified to pH 4 with acetic acid. Other methods have been used for determining "cellulose" in wood, using, for example, peracetic acid, alcohol and nitric acid, or acetylacetone and hydrochloric acid as the delignifying agent.