By T. M. Cook, D. J. Cullen
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Extra info for Chemical Plant and its Operation. Including Safety and Health Aspects
Chemical Plant 57 FIG. 13. Ball valve. Both types can be made in multi-port form, that is the hole in the ball or plug may be Τ or L shaped and the valve body has three or four outlets (Fig. 15). The careful selection of a single, multi-port valve will not only eliminate two or three valves but it will also eliminate the dead leg of material that remains in a branch above the conventional valve (Fig. 16). Diaphragm valves are described more fully in Chapter 6. It will suffice to mention that the diaphragm eliminates gland leakage; they are available in almost all known materials of construction.
Furthermore, any suspended particles or dirt in the liquid would be likely to prevent tight sealing of the valves and cause wear by abrasion. A reciprocating p u m p , when handling non-corrosive fluids, is capable of developing high pressures or producing vacuum. Like the centrifugal p u m p , it can be arranged multi-stage so that one cylinder discharge is connected to the suction of another. This type is often employed as a vacuum p u m p or as an air or gas p u m p (usually called a compressor), and in many cases as a metering p u m p because of the fixed volume discharged per stroke.
The filter leaf is a frame over which a filter cloth is stretched, the slurry being fed to the outside of the frame. Similar to pressureplate filters, they can be fabricated in most material of construction. Product Wash Centrifuge FIG. 7. Centrifuges (Fig. 7), sometimes called hydro-extractors or "spinners", are another very common form of filter. They consist of a basket or cage, mounted horizontally or vertically, with holes in the side, which is rotated at a speed such that the centrifugal force throws the contents outwards.