Centrifugal Pump Handbook by Sulzer Pumps

By Sulzer Pumps

This long-awaited re-creation is the total reference for engineers and architects engaged on pump layout and improvement or utilizing centrifugal pumps within the box. This authoritative consultant has been constructed with entry to the technical services of the best centrifugal pump developer, Sulzer Pumps. as well as supplying the main entire centrifugal pump idea and layout reference with designated fabric on cavitation, erosion, collection of fabrics, rotor vibration habit and forces performing on pumps, the guide additionally covers key pumping software issues and operational matters, together with working functionality in a number of forms of circuitry, drives and recognition checking out.

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The pump may revert to minimum or zero flow with a risk of overheating because the power input to the pump is then converted into heat. Pumps with unstable characteristics may interact with the system in closed circuits, leading to flow oscillations (surge) and possibly pipe vibrations. Stable characteristics are a fundamental requirement for the automatic control of centrifugal pumps. 2 . 1 Piping system characteristic The head to be overcome consists of a static component Hgeo which is independent of the flow rate, and a head loss Hdyn increasing with the square of the flow and depending on pipework layout, pipe diameter and length.

In general, critical speeds should be excluded from the operational ranges of pumps. This is important especially when rotor damping is low. In order to ensure operational reliability of high-head pumps, it is important to make a careful analysis of the vibrational behavior of the rotor. For carrying out this analysis, a number of sophisticated computer programs are available today, and apart from analyzing complex rotor shapes, they can also take account of the bearings and seals. These programs deliver data not only on the natural frequencies associated with each vibration mode, but also on the corresponding damping values for each frequency.

When varying speed, the following equations hold good in accordance with the law of similarity:  2  2 Q1 n 1 H 1 n1 NPSH1 n1 ¼ ¼ ¼ Q2 n 2 H 2 n2 NPSH2 n2 . From the last of these equations it is clear that increasing the speed increases the NPSHreq as well. A higher NPSHav must be provided. Moreover, increasing speed increases power input approximately by the third power of the speed. Consequently the strength of the shaft must always be verified before increasing the speed. With small speed changes (up to 10%) efficiency remains virtually unchanged.

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