By Gabriele Centi, Rutger A.van Santen
With its specialise in catalysis and addressing extremely popular and well timed issues with major implications for our destiny lives, this can be a white ebook within the field.The authority at the back of this functional paintings is the IDECAT community of Excellence, and the authors the following define how using catalysis will advertise the extra large use of renewable feedstocks in chemical and effort creation. They current the newest functions, their applicability and effects, making this a prepared reference for researchers and engineers operating in catalysis, chemistry, and commercial procedures wishing to research innovations, outlooks and possibilities within the box.
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Additional info for Catalysis for Renewables: From Feedstock to Energy Production
3 Chemistry and Processes salts (peeling reaction). The formation of carboxylate salts is undesirable in pulp processes as they result in the (partial) neutralization of the base catalyst. Beyond conventional acids and bases, (ligno)cellulose can also be hydrolyzed by enzymes  that also exhibit acid–basic properties. These enzymes do not catalyze the undesired decomposition of the sugars, thanks to their high speciﬁcity and, possibly also, to their very mild operating temperature. The cellulose enzymes are much bulkier than homogeneous acids or bases, however.
The unsaturated retro-Michael product easily isomerizes to a dicarbonyl when the Ca also carries a hydroxyl group (X ¼ OH in Fig. 3). Such components are notoriously unstable. They undergo decarbonylation to a shorter aldehyde and CO. The retro-Michael product can also be converted into a carboxylic acid via hydration of the aldehyde function (Fig. 3). Notably, the formation of the carboxylic acid is accompanied by the saturation of the Cb ; it in fact represents an exchange reaction between the OHb and the aldehydic H.
Matsumura has reviewed the gasiﬁcation of biomass with near- and super-critical water . The presence of ‘‘liquid’’ water suppressed the formation of char but not of tars. Full gasiﬁcation proceeds in the presence of metal catalysts at 350–600 C but also in absence of any catalysts at 500–750 C. This subject is discussed elsewhere in this book . , 200–250 C . He also showed the possibility to divert the reaction towards to production of alkanes by using an acidic support for the Pt or Pd reforming catalyst.