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Additional resources for Biotechnological Innovations in Chemical Synthesis - Open Univ.
Examples: steroid hydroxylation. 1 illustrates the main patterns for batch fermentation process kinetics for type 1,2 and 3 processes. 1 General patterns for batch fermentation process kinetics. type 1 In type 1processes, substrate utilisation, biomass formationand product formationam linked in a simple chemical reaction. 9 Chapter 3 44 The product yield coefficient can then be calculated, taking into account the relative numbers of carbons in the substrate and product. The molar yield coefficient is then written as r o d u c t f o d - f'n, psubstrate used - a'n, (mols product formed/mols substrateconsumed).
1. 2 Strategies for improvement of process micro-organisms Natural isolates usually produce commercially important products in very low concentrations and the potential productivity of the organism is controlled by the genome. In practice, the process of strain improvement involves the continual genetic modification of the culture, followed by reappraisals of its cultural requirements. Genetic modification may be achieved by: selecting natural variants (egenrichmentculture of soil organisms); 0 selecting induced mutants (eg produced by use of W light or chemical mutagens); selecting recombinants (eg produced by protoplast fusion or by in Vitro genetic engineering).
Growth In class 2 (ATP generating), the rate of metabolite production, and oxidation state, are inversely related to the growth efficiency. In class 3, the rate of metabolite production from a single substrate may be limited by the rate of ATP turnover. Provision of ready made precursors can inmase both the metabolite yield (finalconcentration)and rate of production by decreasing the requirement for ATP turnover during biosynthesis. effidmq ATP ~ J ~ X H In the following sections we will consider the production of each class of metabolite separately.