Between Naturalism and Religion: Philosophical Essays by Jürgen Habermas

By Jürgen Habermas

Countervailing tendencies mark the highbrow tenor of our age the unfold of naturalistic worldviews and non secular orthodoxies. Advances in biogenetics, mind examine, and robotics are clearing the best way for the penetration of an target medical self-understanding of individuals into lifestyle. For philosophy, this pattern is linked to the problem of medical naturalism. while, we're witnessing an unforeseen revitalization of spiritual traditions and the politicization of non secular groups internationally. From a philosophical point of view, this revival of non secular energies poses the problem of a fundamentalist critique of the rules underlying the fashionable Wests postmetaphysical realizing of itself.
The pressure among naturalism and faith is the relevant topic of this significant new ebook by means of Jrgen Habermas. at the one hand he argues for a suitable naturalistic realizing of cultural evolution that does justice to the normative personality of the human brain. however, he demands a suitable interpretation of the secularizing results of a technique of social and cultural clarification more and more denounced by way of the champions of spiritual orthodoxies as a old improvement strange to the West. those reflections at the enduring value of faith and the bounds of secularism lower than stipulations of postmetaphysical cause set the scene for a longer therapy the political importance of non secular tolerance and for a clean contribution to present debates on cosmopolitanism and a structure for foreign society.

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The relation to the world of a propositionally differentiated, representational language compels language-users to project a shared system of independently existing objects of reference about which they can form beliefs and which they can intentionally influence. The formal-pragmatic supposition of the world creates placeholders for objects to which speaking and acting subjects can refer. However, grammar cannot “impose” any laws on nature. ” Thus in the “vertical” dimension of relating to the world, idealization consists in the anticipation of the totality of possible references.

However, agents who are immediately involved have a different attitude toward the network of their normatively regulated interactions, namely, the performative attitude of actors who can “violate” norms only because they accept them as binding. Adopting the perspective of a second person whose “good will” is subject to normative expectations, they use a reference system that complements that of the objective world. This reference system detaches the relevant segment for their normgoverned action from the encompassing context of their lifeworld for the purpose of thematization.

Establishing “analogies” is not the end of the matter. In the course of their transformation, Kant’s oppositions (constitutive vs. regulative, transcendental vs. empirical, immanent vs. ) become blurred because detranscendentalization represents a profound intervention into the architecture of his basic assumptions. In light of these genealogical connections, we also discover the crossroads at which analytic philosophy of language diverts the legacy of the Kantian ideas of reason. Nevertheless, as I will show in the second part, it arrives at a similar normative description of linguistic practice as a formal pragmatics that is more deeply indebted to Kant.

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