By Vigen Arakelian, Sébastien Briot
In this e-book complicated balancing tools for planar and spatial linkages, hand operated and automated robotic manipulators are awarded. it's equipped into 3 major elements and 8 chapters. the most elements are the creation to balancing, the balancing of linkages and the balancing of robotic manipulators. The evaluate of state of the art literature together with greater than 500 references discloses particularities of shaking force/moment balancing and gravity reimbursement tools. Then new tools for balancing of linkages are thought of. tools supplied within the moment a part of the ebook care for the partial and entire shaking force/moment balancing of assorted linkages. a brand new box for balancing tools purposes is the layout of mechanical platforms for quick manipulation. distinctive recognition is given to the shaking force/moment balancing of robotic manipulators. Gravity balancing tools also are mentioned. The instructed balancing equipment are illustrated via a variety of examples.
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Additional info for Balancing of Linkages and Robot Manipulators: Advanced Methods with Illustrative Examples
28). It involves supporting a payload by a holding unit that is connected with an end-effector flange of the robot for automatically moving of the load body. Some recent works have dealt with the gravity compensation for the manipulators with Schoenflies motions (three translations plus one rotation around the vertical axis) in which the vertical motion is decoupled from other degrees of freedom. In the latter situation, only the mechanical system that generates the vertical motion needs to be gravity compensated in order to eliminate actuator torque caused by the weight of the moving parts and the payload (Zabalza et al.
The following two schemes shown in Fig. 21a illustrate the gravity compensation by using compression springs mounted on the guides. The compression springs are chosen to have a force-deflection characteristics to account for the gravitational moment and the geometry of the mechanism. The advantages of these equilibrators consists in the high rigidity of the system because they do not contain auxiliary elements that have a tendency to reduce the balancing accuracy. However, as discussed earlier, the errors due to the manufacturing tolerances of links can decrease the quality of the gravity compensation.
In practice, zero-free length springs are made by combining a “negative length” spring, made with even more tension so that its equilibrium point would be at a “negative length”, with a piece of inelastic material of the proper length in order that the zero force point would occur at zero length (Lacoste 1935; Melton 1971). 3 Gravity Balancing in Robotics Fs 31 Fs l0 F0 l0 F0=k l0 O a x O F0=0 x b Fig. 13 Force-length characteristics of zero free length (a) and non-zero free length springs (b) Fig.