By Ron G. Manley (auth.), Joseph F. Bunnett, Marian Mikołajczyk (eds.)
More than ten million `poison fuel' shells, mortar bombs, etc., lie hidden in Europe, a lot of them relics from global battle I. a few have been fired and didn't detonate, others have been deserted in outdated ammunition dumps. so much keep their load of chemical battle (CW) brokers. they're became up day-by-day during farming and building. Many ecu international locations have everlasting departments occupied with their assortment and destruction.
previous munitions, while chanced on, are typically seriously corroded and hard to spot. Is it a CW munition? Or an explosive? If CW, what agent does it comprise? as soon as pointed out, one has to pick a destruction technique. a few of the equipment which have been proposed are lower than excellent, and are usually advanced through the presence of extraneous chemical compounds, both combined with the CW brokers in the course of manufacture or shaped over a long time within the floor.
Of specific curiosity are the insiders' reviews at the German CW programmes of either international Wars, and the present prestige of Russian chemical armaments.
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Extra info for Arsenic and Old Mustard: Chemical Problems in the Destruction of Old Arsenical and ‘Mustard’ Munitions
An "improved" ground contamination effect was obtained by charging thickened 'mustard' into the shell. "Nitrogen mustard" was also tried for ground contamination but was found to be less effective than "sulphur mustard". Trials in 1914-18 of a shell design (Figure 11) having Clark II in glass bottles embedded in high explosive showed poor performance because most of the CW agent was dispersed in relatively large particles; the generation of aerosols was desired. For this reason, use was made of a new design in which the solid material (Adamsite or Clark I) was arranged as a central cylinder or cone in paper carton, this being surrounded by high explosive (Figure 9).
11. C. (1993) Abandoned CW stocks uncovered in Washington, DC. ASA Newsletter, issue 35, 8 April 1993. 12. SIPRI, (1971) The problem of chemical and biological waifare: the rise ofCB weapons, vol. 1, Stockholm. 13. D. & Cochrane, RC. (1959) The chemical waifare service: from laboratory to field. Office of the Chief of Military History, United States Army, Washington DC. 14. United Kingdom Working Paper (1988) Past production of chemical warfare agents in the United Kingdom. CD 856, Conference on Disarmament, Geneva.
1 CHEMICAL STRUCTURE AND COMPosmON An imposing number of organoarsenic and 'mustard' compounds have been tried out for use as chemical agents. Many of them were rejected because they lacked toxicity or on account of tactical drawbacks. In the case of'mustard'-type blister agents, the number was increased until 1945 by manifold tactical formulations. The arsenicals of German war production are listed in Table 1  . The basic "mustard gas" compounds may be found in Table 2   and tactical mixtures are summarized in Table 3 .