By J. W. S. Cassels (auth.)

Reihentext + Geometry of Numbers From the studies: "The paintings is punctiliously written. it really is good stimulated, and fascinating to learn, no matter if it's not regularly easy... ancient fabric is included... the writer has written a very good account of an attractive subject." (Mathematical Gazette) "A well-written, very thorough account ... one of the subject matters are lattices, aid, Minkowski's Theorem, distance features, packings, and automorphs; a few purposes to quantity concept; very good bibliographical references." (The American Mathematical Monthly)

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**Example text**

We show now that two forms in the same type may be transformed into each other by a transformation of the type (7) with real «, fJ, y, <5. It is enough to show that all forms I of a given type may be transformed into an I' which is fixed for the type. We may suppose without loss of generality that either 1');,1f'; are all real or in our two respective cases, where the bar denotes the complex conjugate. Clearly these two cases are characterised by D> 0 and D < 0 respectively. There exist numbers At, A2' Aa not all 0 such that Al1f'1 + Aa1f'2 + Aa1f'3 = 0 } At 1')1 + AI1')a + Aa1')3 = O.

The difficulty is that if t> 1. then the form t I (x) = I' (x) satisfies the same choice of inequalities "I (u);S 1 or I (u);;;:; - 1" as the original/(x). Here t might be arbitrarily close to 1. that is. the coefficients of I'(x) might be arbitrarily close those of I(x). Hence to pin down I (x) uniquely we must some-how make use of the normalization M(f) = 1. We do this by first finding the determinant of the form in Reduction 38 question and then using this as part of our information. The actual proofs will make the details clearer.

000. ej is extensible to a basis and II (eil! ~ Mj/(1 - e) 0 Let I'(x) be the equivalent form for which I(e;) =I'(ei ) Then we have II'(u l • 0 ••• 0 un)! ~ (1 - e) II' (ei )I for all sets of integers U l • •••• Un such that goc. d. • un) = 1. But. of course. there is no reason to suppose that there are only a finite number of I' with this property and equivalent to a given f. An alternative procedure which is sometimes possible is to find some other form g(x). related to our given I. which is definite and to reduce g(x)o We shall do this for binary cubic forms in § 6.