By Aquino De Braganca, Immanuel Maurice Wallerstein
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Additional resources for African Liberation Reader: Documents of the National Liberation Movements : The Strategy of Liberation
A. a. = not available FDI = foreign direct investment GCC = Gulf Cooperation Council OECD = Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Sources: UNCTAD (2006); World Bank (2007). 1 05--Chapter 5--23-44 9/23/08 8:40 AM Page 25 As background for subsequent chapters on the macroeconomic and sectoral prospects of regional and global integration schemes for the Maghreb countries, this chapter examines the basic dimensions of the trade and investment relations of the Arab Maghreb Union (AMU) countries today, including trade in services.
More recent attempts to revive the AMU also have failed. In May 1999 Algeria reconvened the meeting of AMU foreign ministers with no tangible results. In December 2003 Algeria attempted to hand over the AMU presidency to Libya to renew Libyan interest in the union, but Libya refused the office. Opinions diverge as to how the AMU could be revitalized. Most Maghreb countries are torn between bonds to the rest of the Arab world, links to their continental African neighbors, and colonial ties to the European Union.
7 Trade agreements and commitments of the five Maghreb nations Agreement/commitment Algeria Libya Mauritania Morocco Tunisia Member since May 1995 Member since January 1995 Member since March 1995 Arab Maghreb Uniona Member since 1989 Member since 1989 Member since 1989 Member since 1989 Member since 1989 Member since 1997 Member since 1997 Signed in 2004 Signed in 2004 Member since 2001 Member since 2001 Association Agreement signed in February 1996 and entered into effect in March 2000; free trade area planned for 2012 Member of the EuroMed Free Trade Area for manufactured goods since January 1, 2008 GAFTAb Member since 1997 Agadir Agreementc CEN-SADd Member since 1998 COMESAe Member since 2005 Euro-Med Partnershipf Free trade agreement with the United States Association Agreement signed in April 2002 and entered into effect in September 2005; free trade area planned for 2017 Has observer status in the Euro-Med process since 1999 “Special guest” at foreign ministers’ meetings Signed in March 2004 and entered into effect in January 2006 a.