By Lorenza Saitta, Jean-Daniel Zucker (auth.)
Abstraction is a basic mechanism underlying either human and synthetic conception, illustration of information, reasoning and studying. This mechanism performs a vital position in lots of disciplines, particularly desktop Programming, usual and synthetic imaginative and prescient, complicated platforms, man made Intelligence and laptop studying, paintings, and Cognitive Sciences. This ebook first offers the reader with an summary of the notions of abstraction proposed in a number of disciplines through evaluating either commonalities and changes. After discussing the characterizing houses of abstraction, a proper version, the KRA version, is gifted to trap them. This version makes the concept of abstraction simply acceptable by way of the creation of a collection of abstraction operators and abstraction styles, reusable throughout diverse domain names and purposes. it's the influence of abstraction in synthetic Intelligence, advanced structures and computer studying which creates the middle of the publication. A common framework, in accordance with the KRA version, is gifted, and its pragmatic energy is illustrated with 3 case reviews: Model-based analysis, Cartographic Generalization, and studying Hierarchical Hidden Markov Models.
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Additional resources for Abstraction in artificial intelligence and complex systems
Once the distinction between concrete and abstract has been introduced, it is a small step ahead to think of varying degrees of abstraction, organized into a hierarchy. The study of the reality on different levels has been the object of various kinds of “levelism”, from epistemological to ontological. Even though some of the past hierarchical organizations of reality seem obsolete, Floridi claimed recently  that the epistemological one is tenable, and proposed a “theory of the levels of abstraction”.
10 “This is not a pipe”. 5 Art (Mostly Peinture) 29 Fig. 3 Nocturne in Black and Gold by J. McNeill Whistler (1875). It is considered as a first step toward abstraction in painting [A color version of this figure is reported in Fig. H2 of Appendix H] Thus, abstract art does not aim at representing the world as it appears, but rather at composing works that are purposefully non-representational and subjective. The use of non-figurative patterns is not new, as many of them appear on pottery and textiles from pre-historical times.
1 Specification templates for procedural and data abstraction. When assigning a name to the procedure, its inputs and outputs are defined. ” It ignores irrelevant details; all its realizations must agree on the relevant details, but may differ on the irrelevant ones. Abstraction is defined by Liskov and Guttag by means of specifications. They introduce templates for procedural and data abstraction, examples of which are reported in Fig. 1. As we will see in Chap. 7, abstraction operators can be represented with Abstract Procedural Types.