By Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (auth.), Peter A. Flach, Antonis C. Kakas (eds.)
From the very starting in their research of human reasoning, philosophers have pointed out different kinds of reasoning, along with deduction, which we now name abduction and induction. Deduction is now rather good understood, yet abduction and induction have eluded the same point of realizing. The papers accrued the following tackle the connection among abduction and induction and their attainable integration. The strategy is usually philosophical, occasionally that of natural good judgment, and a few papers undertake the extra task-oriented technique of AI.
The publication will command the eye of philosophers, logicians, AI researchers and computing device scientists in general.
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Additional info for Abduction and Induction: Essays on their Relation and Integration
Clauses that could be generalised so that positive observations in 0 become entailed, or clauses that may need to be specialised or retracted because they are inconsistent with negative observations. A more active cooperation occurs when, first, through the use of basic abduction, the original observations are transformed to data on abducible background predicates in T, becoming training data for induction on these predicates. 4; another example in (Dimopoulos and Kak:as, 1996b) shows that only if, before inductive generalisation takes place, we abductively transform the observations into other predicates in a uniform way, it is possible to solve the original inductive learning task.
We would argue however that this generalisation effect is already present in the background theory. On the other hand, an inductive hypothesis produces a genuinely new generalisation effect, in the sense that we can find new individuals for which the addition of the hypothesis to our knowledge is necessary to derive some observable property for these individuals (usually this property is that of the observations on which the induction was based). With an abductive hypothesis this kind of extension of the observable property to other new individuals does not necessarily require the a priori addition of the abductive hypothesis to the theory but depends only on the properties of this individual and the given background theory: the generalisation, if any, already exists in the background theory.
Kruijff suggests that, besides the creativity of hypotheses, the surprisingness of what is to be explained is at the core of abduction's ubiquity and of its relation to reality (Kruijff, 1997). Peirce, too, sometimes emphasizes surprise. It is clear that there is much expected utility in trying to explain things that are surprising. Surprise points out just where knowledge is lacking, and when a failed expectation has distinctly pleasant or unpleasant effects, there may well be something of practical important to be learned.