By Alan Timberlake
This textbook describes and systematizes all features of the grammar of Russian--including styles of orthography, sounds, inflection, syntax, tense-aspect-mood, be aware order, and intonation. it truly is in particular inquisitive about the which means of combos of phrases (constructions) and the middle thought is that of the predicate historical past (a list of the states of entities via time and throughout possibilities). utilizing predicate histories, the booklet provides an built-in account of the semantics of verbs, nouns, case, and point. it is going to attract scholars, students and language execs attracted to Russian.
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Extra info for A Reference Grammar of Russian (Reference Grammars)
Acoustically the centralization of unstressed vowels shows up as less extreme values for both F1 (reﬂecting vowel height) and F2 (reﬂecting frontness vs. 14 The set of unstressed vowels occupies a smaller portion of the vowel space than the set of stressed vowels. As an indirect consequence of the reduced size of the vowel space, unstressed vowels tend to merge. 16 We rely on various kinds of indirect evidence such as etymology, orthography, and related word forms. The ﬁction, however, is unavoidable.
Specifying the values of F1 and F2 goes a long way towards deﬁning a vowel. It takes a little time for each vowel to reach its target position, and some of the duration of vowels is spent in transition from the preceding to the following consonant. Different places of articulation (labial, dental, alveo-palatal, velar) have characteristic effects on vowels, speciﬁcally on F2 . Labial consonants ([p] or [m]) depress the value of F2 in the transition to the vowel; dentals ([t s]) raise F2 , and velars ([k g x]) are intermediate in their effect on F2 .
One might take the point of view that speakers of Russian manipulate whole CV and VC sequences as conventionalized phonetic units. Localizing palatalization (or its absence) in the consonant alone is an oversimpliﬁcation. ’ is pronounced without palatalization, as it often is in an informal register, the preceding vowel is also affected, hence [o⁄m] instead of [o5m ⁄ ˛ ]. Or when velars palatalized before [È] in the history of Russian, the change in the consonant was correlated with a change in the vowel -- [kÈ] changed to [k˛ i].